EjSBS - The European Journal of Social & Behavioural Sciences

The European Journal of Social & Behavioural Sciences

Online ISSN: 2301-2218
European Publisher

Employees’ Empowerment and Engagement in Attaining Personal and Organisational Goals

Abstract

Employee empowerment and engagement are critical for any given organization as these positively influence workers to produce better results and attain both personal and company gaols. This specific study focuses on LPG Cyprus Company, where the subject of the employee empowerment and engagement is analysed through a qualitative research design using interviews with the management and the employees about how they are treated and what they think about their company with regards to the subject matter. The findings revealed that while there was a cordial relationship among the management and employees, there was a need for the management to strengthen their strategies to empower the employees and engage them more fruitfully in the working processes.

Keywords: Empowermentengagementemployeesmanagementgood practicechange management

Introduction

The current global industry is in transition towards a knowledge-based economy, with workers’ transformation from physical to knowledge-based employees, due to the shift in the technological paradigm. People’s behaviour has greatly changed with regard to values, standards and beliefs (Griffin, Parker, & Mason, 2010; Williams, 2011). Currently, workers are more linked to creativity, flexibility and freedom both in and out of their workplace (Cho, Laschinger, & Wong, 2006; Lockwood, 2007). The changes in the IT sector have erased boundaries, reduced communication expenses, making the globe smaller and larger at the same time (Welch, 2011). Businesses have implemented better, quicker cost effective strategies to share information amongst the team members (Hanaysha, 2016).

Empowerment entails the ability of a worker to make individual decisions without having to consult their managers (Brad Shuck, Rocco, & Albornoz, 2011). Empowerment determines the accountability level and the trust of the workers. In the case of the LPG company investigated in this study, it has been found to be one of the companies that have encouraged empowerment of the workplace to the interest of the firm (Markos & Sridevi, 2010). When staff members are empowered, they are able to influence the firm’s quality of services and products (Shuck & Reio, 2014). In the course of the study, LPG companies have been undergoing a revolution in their business cycle by changing their communication channels from traditional to modern approaches (Jose & Mampilly, 2014). Companies in the same sector as LPG are likely to have similar issues and challenges, more so with regard to employee-manager relationships (European LPG Association, 2016). Most corporates work in compliance to a common corporate governance framework (Doz, 2017).

Knowledge employees

According to Hanaysha (2016), LPG operations are fraught with risk as they deal with Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) used for vehicles, cooking appliances and heating equipment. Hence, the management has to focus on the application, creation and circulation of knowledge within the organization (Bedarkar & Pandita, 2014). Features characterizing knowledge workers include employee knowledge and employee expertise to employ observation technique and performing of a single job in a different way (Joo & Park, 2010).

Andriotis (2017) posits that knowledge management for an LPG company calls for optimal employee empowerment and engagement by the management to achieve better process mastery. This requires the adoption of a deliberate strategy to achieve an excellent performance and maintenance of a commitment, as well as, preferred autonomy (Geldenhuys, Laba, & Venter, 2014). There is, however, a need for trust which is attainable by empowerment, engagement and possibly leadership change (Danish, Ramzan, & Ahmad, 2013; Hanaysha, 2016). Companies also need to create a way via which they can engage and manage expert employees who are not willing to share their know-how (Danish, Ramzan, & Ahmad, 2013).

Knowledge employees

Employee empowerment is the process through which power transfer is imparted or enabled from a single individual to another (Rose & Shuck, 2013). Empowered employees are in a better position in making choices appropriate to solve particular problems on their own (Andrew & Sofian, 2012). The process commences with training directed to transitioning the whole organization to an empowered model where workers are trusted to make responsible choices that are beneficial to the company wholly (Taneja, Sewell, & Odom, 2015).

Employee engagement

Employee engagement is drawn out through a talent management engine directed at drawing its effectiveness and resilience from various internal and external organizational environment factors (Kaliannan & Adjovu, 2015). Employees are offered an opportunity of making choices for the best interest of a firm (Rose, Kumar, & Pak, 2011). Employees’ engagement approaches implementation by the company lead to the attainment of some satisfactory levels, though there are areas which require an integration of talent management (Loon Hoe & McShane, 2010).

Employee engagement

Strategies that assist in engaging and empowering workers in an LPG organization include job importance perception and vivid expectations (Mone, Eisinger, Guggenheim, Price, & Stine, 2011). Regular feedback from the managers and welcoming suggestions is also another strategy that can ensure worker engagement and empowerement. Another critical strategy includes maintaining effective communication. For organisations, effective employee empowerment and engagement is a critical consideration as it leads to a high organizational performance that is measurable by positive financial performance (Alfes, Shantz, Truss, & Soane, 2013). Another positive outcome of effective employee employment and empowerment is higher job commitment and satisfaction, leading to high work effectiveness (Andrew & Sofian, 2012).

Organizational Change and Change Management

Organizational change refers to the process through which businesses install new cultures, technologies, approaches, operational policies and structures to achieve transformation (Stouten, Rousseau, & De Cremer, 2018). Business ought to have a well-structured and inclusive approach to achieve the intended organizational transformation (Hornstein, 2015). Therefore, businesses must design a well-structured and inclusive approach through which its team can implement to achieve the intended organizational transformation.

Purpose of the Study

The research site was one of the LPG providers in Cyprus, a 15-year-old firm which is at the growth stage. The study is motivated by the need to explore actual employment and empowerment strategies and to also unearth gaps in the management of employees, after which recommendations on the study are offered. The participants in the study were involved with identifying gaps and solutions in the current dynamic work place, after which the results offered a framework for good management practice with regard to SMEs.

Research Questions

RQ1. What are the impacts on employees’ empowerment and engagement strategies employed by managers at the LPG Company?

RQ2. How do the strategies aid in identifying and promoting good organizational practice?

Research Design and Methodology

Design

The study employed a mixed method approach to enhance this qualitative research. Secondary sources were analysed with respect to the topic of inquiry (Jiang, Lepak, Hu, & Baer, 2012). Primary data collection involved the use of interviews and observation of 7 mangers and 29 employees from the company (Buller & McEvoy, 2012). The collected data is descriptive and was analysed with the help of inferential data assessment approach, Bayesian Model, (McLaughlin, 2005). Primary data was assessed with respect to existing literatures to ensure the study’s credibility and reliability (Suri, 2011).

The data for this research included accessing the company’s database to attain an overview on duty assignment, performance, qualification of workers and the length of period of services (Doz, 2011). Physical and online libraries were also accessed to review the literature. Interaction with the LPG company management was necessary permissions for the interviews and to obtain access to corporate data and archives.

Sampling Procedure

The random sampling process involved 7 of the 8 heads of departments to ensure optimal inclusion leadership representation. Further, a sample of 29 employees was considered (Spence Laschinger, Leiter, Day, & Gilin, 2009). The intention of the sample size was to obtain a representation of the company’s population. 7 managers and 29 employees were considered an ideal number to reflect on 8 managers and 80 workers working in the company under investigation (Chiang & Hsieh, 2012). Generation and gender diversity were also considered in the sampling (Pieterse, Van Knippenberg, Schippers, & Stam, 2010).

Hypothesis generation

Inferential data was critical for this study where two hypotheses were specifically designed to assess the empowerment and engagement of employees (McLaughlin, 2005). The two hypotheses were with respect to the identification and promotion of good practice in the company (Hoon, Kolb, Hee, & Kyoung, 2012). Two hypotheses were generated for the study. Bayesian Techniques were also incorporated where there is a probabilistic inference via which specific proposed scenarios (Hypotheses A and B) are allotted possibility with respect to the observations of actual events (Roos, Martins, Held, & Rue, 2015). The technique allows the integration of novel data concerning the alternative hypothesis (Fairfield, 2018). The hypotheses include:

Hypothesis A: The impact on employees’ empowerment and engagement strategies employed by managers at the LPG Company motivates the identification and promotion of good practice.

Hypothesis B : The impact on employees’ empowerment and engagement strategies employed by managers at the LPG Company do not motivate the identification and promotion of good practice.

Data collection and analysis

The study used qualitative data collection methods which included both primary and secondary data. Primary data collection entailed use of questionnaires, interviews and observation (Bakker, Hakanen, Demerouti, & Xanthopoulou, 2007). Secondary data was collected through review of existing literatures. The data was analysed by transcribing of data, coding of collected data and the generalization of the data (Cope, 2014).

Results and Discussion

Analysis of Observation

Generally, the employees were observed to be in a happy mood practising good time management abilities and warm relations with the managers (Armstrong & Taylor, 2014). However, it must be noted that the interactions between the employees and the managers are unique to individual managers’ personality and the department responsibilities (Berger, 2013).

The results found that the company has invested little in extensive systematic approaches to measure the employees’ talents (Bailey, Mankin, Kelliher, & Garavan, 2018). Some employees are working in positions that do not relate to their passion while other are optimally content in their job positions (Bedarkar & Pandita, 2014). Thus, the company has plans to install a novel plan for employee development to a section of its human resource with critical potentials (Men & Stacks, 2013). Employees’ energization is below the general manager’s expectations which the workers link to bonuses and motivation to work (Jose & Mampilly, 2014). In this regard, the employees are given opportunities to take initiative and make decisions with regard to their roles (Lazaroiu, 2015). The managers consider the employees’ opinions and make the final decisions independently. However, most employees are fearful while others avoid taking initiatives (Brad Shuck, Rocco, & Albornoz, 2011). They prefer to just work on the assigned duties; hence, there is a strong focus on attaining the company’s goals, problem solving and excellent performance.

Managers are responsible for overseeing change initiation and innovation within their specific departments (Ugwu, Onyishi, & Rodríguez-Sánchez, 2014). The management team is comfortable in initiating and adopting organizational change (Chiang & Hsieh, 2012). They then delegate specific duties to their subordinates (Zhang & Bartol, 2010). To ensure quality work delivery, workers undergo several periodic trainings and development programs (Khalid & Khalid, 2015). However, it was noted that not all the workers are able to attend these sessions which can be construed as detracting from organisational effectiveness.

However, the company’s organizational culture highly motivates workers to keep working in the company as it allows a good work-life balance (Albrecht, Bakker, Gruman, Macey, & Saks, 2015).

Analysis of survey

The data analysis phases for the surveys started by applying the Bayesian Updating Model. Each hypothesis was assigned a 0.5 prior probability (Berger, 2013). Driven by the need to achieve the fairest inferential data, the study employed conditional probability for hypothesis A and B (Fairfield, 2018). This phase was guided by the probability that hypothesis A occurs given an event E: p(A/E) = p(A, E)/p(E).

Thus, p(A/E) = {p(A)*p(E/A)}/{[p(A)*p(E/A)] +[p(NA)*p(E/NA)]}.

On the other hand, the possibility that of B being true given an event A is (1-p(A)) =p(NA). Therefore, p(B/E) = p(E/NA) = {P(E)*p(NA/E)}/{p(NA)} (Karvetski, Olson, Gantz, & Cross, 2013).

Table 1 represents the results following the Bayes analysis of the primary data collected from the LPG Company’s employees and managers.

Table 1 -
See Full Size >
Table 2 -
See Full Size >
Figure 1: Hypotheses Scores in Table 2 Depicted in a Graphical Manner to Show the Stronger Hypothesis
Hypotheses Scores in Table 2 Depicted in a Graphical Manner to Show the Stronger Hypothesis
See Full Size >

As illustrated by Table 2 and Figure 1 above, hypothesis A is constantly the most preferred given the study’s evidences with its score being over 55% and an average of 69%. Levels 2, 3,4,5 and 7 have scores below 70% at 57.4%, 55.39%, 61.23%, 68.99% and 57.14% respectively which gives hypothesis B a relatively strong position against that of A. However, levels 1, 6, 8 and 9 have a relatively strong support for hypothesis A with score above 70% at 81.20%, 78.54%, 87.12% and 70.97% respectively (Bratton & Gold, 2017).

Figure 2: Average Scores for Each of the Hypotheses Derived from the Analysis in Table 2
Average Scores for Each of the Hypotheses Derived from the Analysis in Table 2
See Full Size >

As illustrated in Figure 2 , the level of uncertainty is considerably high at 31% hence posing a substantial gap in employee management towards good practice (Buller & McEvoy, 2012). This LPG Company needs to put in the necessary effort to ensure that the gap is minimized for optimal utilization of the Human Resource Capital.

Conclusion

It is evident that employee empowerment and effective engagement strategies are critical for the growth of a company. Empowerment of the workers enhances their creativity. By making a worker feel valued and get a sense of achievement, he or she is most likely to become creative and enhance their critical thinking. This makes employees feel more encouraged and proficient to develop situations through unconventional strategies which improves the product development process (Aghimien, Osanyinro, & Adegbembo, 2017).

It is also apparent that when a worker feels valued and has a sense of achievement, he or she is most likely to become more creative and enhance their critical thinking capacities (Agyemang & Ofei, 2013). From the engagement strategies and the empowerment measures applied at the LPG Company under investigation, the management have been able to empower the workers with better decision-making skills. By empowering the workers, they get to respond to changes quickly and also find ways of meeting the needs of the customers (Appelbaum, Karasek, Lapointe, & Quelch, 2015).

The study confirmed that empowering employees leads to improving the quality of customer service as resolving issues quickly becomes a part of their professional conduct. Hence, empowerment of employees directly assists in improving the quality of customer service (Truong Quang & Hara, 2017). Such workers are also conversant with the fact that managers respect new ideas, and hence work towards making things better, through focusing on both personal and the company growth (Michael & Taylor, 2014). This finding indirectly reveals that an un-empowered employee does not follow a certain culture or system, and never questions the process (Tariq, Jan, & Ahmad, 2016). The LPG company in this study can, therefore, improve on its operations, and ultimately meet most of its revenue and profit goals and objectives through working towards ensuring there is more empowerment and engagement process of its employees (Han, Seo, Li, & Yoon, 2016) by undertaking an in-depth research on what empowerment entails.

Workers who are motivated tend to keep a close, but cordial relationship with their superior, a factor that is important in boosting their morale, working spirit and ultimately, their results (Kerzner, 2017). However, the results of the study reveal that more ought to be done considering the fact that the company does not have a specific extensive systematic strategy in place to evaluate the talents of the employees. Such a system would be an added advantage to the company, since evaluating the workers would individually empower each one of them and subsequently develop a better and more motivated workforce (Oloko & Ogutu, 2017).

Recommendation

The LPG management first needs to provide its employees with generous boundaries in order to enhance the use of team work which lead to better result and also enhance innovation within the company (Maxwell, 2005). The LPG company management, led by the general manager, need to come up with guidelines and best practices clear to their employees, more so with regard to interaction of the mangers and the employees which has been identified in the findings. The company also needs to develop better communication strategies to allow for increased levels of trust among employees and their leaders (Kumar & Kumar, 2017). The firm also needs to offer authority and ownership to employees by delegating responsibility so as to permit the employees to take on new projects and run them till completion. As a way of empowering the employees, the firm ought to provide various ways in which its employees can grow professionally (Heathfield, 2018). The firm needs to ensure that it praises and rewards effort as a way of encouraging employees to learn more and grow, rather than to simply remain focused on the few things that they can perform easily.

Another critical issue that any company including this LPG company should focus on is the encouragement of trust within the workplace environment. It is critical that the LPG company considers hiring a number of employees which it can assure of employment status once the company faces an economic downturn whereupon it should be willing them in bad and good times as way of earning the trust of its employees (Fernandez & Moldogaziev, 2015).

This LPG Company also needs to foster the behaviour of giving its employees time; to learn, experiment and manage their personal issues since time produces better outcomes (Boswoth, 2016). Giving employees enough time to handle their personal issues will ensure that they are able to focus on their productivity at work. A successful team of employees will always make mistakes as they try on new ideas that aim at getting the company to higher levels. Therefore, the LPG leadership needs to establish clear differences between acceptable mistakes and the critical offenses (LimeadeMarketing, 2018).

A strong leadership team should also be encouraged by the LPG company and any other company as well. Management with good leadership traits are role models to those they lead and unconsciously demand respect from the rest of the employees. Through good leadership, there are clear communications where workers communicate effective and regularly. They also have a positive attitude and treat all employees equally (Khuong & Le Vu, 2014). Good leadership ensures employees are more motivated and empowered to perform excellently. Another recommendation for the company and other firms globally is to ensure that they have leaders who share their leadership vision with the employees to assist them in feeling like they are part of the company’s future (Al-Ababneh, Al-Sabi, Al-Shakhsheer, & Masadeh, 2017). By taking note of all the issue raised and implementing the recommended methods into its system, the firm will be able to ultimately empower and motivate its employees, making them feel as part of the company (Shen, Chanda, D'netto, & Monga, 2009). This will result to excellent performance which will in turn enhance the productivity and outcomes of the company (Ongori & Shunda, 2008). Ultimately, it will contribute to a final successful achievement of the major goals and objectives by the company (Allen, Lehmann-Willenbrock, & Sands, 2016). After achieving success, the company will then need to appreciate the workers who will have played a vital part by making sure that they feel like part of the company (Hirzel, Leyer, & Moormann, 2017).

Most companies like the Cyprus LPG Company fail to have good structures to empower their employees; hence, creating a need for a well-developed program that will assist in empowering them. The first strategy is to develop a well laid out plan. Other parties to be consulted will be all the managers of the Cyprus LPG Company, who may have more ideas on how to empower the employees and also get better engagement within the firm in the future (Teh, 2009). There is also need to remind them of the values of the company and also insist on the fact that they are very critical to the firm, and hence should always feel as part and parcel of the firm (Allen et al., 2016). The next process of empowering employees will entail having a conversation with the employees with regards to boundaries. Another part of the plan for the workers will entail focusing on the issue of mistakes. The managers need to be reminded of the need for forgiving mistakes and how to tolerate the workers who make mistakes (Farndale, 2018). The other part of the plan is to have all the employees put into groups based on the roles each person plays in the organization. Establishing a teamwork structure will also be critical for the empowerment since it will be one of the ways of boosting the morale of the employees. Further on, the program will entail establishing a growth plan for each and every member of the company (Alazzaz & Whyte, 2015). Additionally, establishing a reward system which will not just entail bonuses but rather focus on the efforts and the different talents that the employees have will also be included (Analoui, 2017; De Lange, Kooij, & Van der Heijden, 2015). Finally, a system of earning trust from the employees will be established (Cokins, 2017).

References

  1. Aghimien, D. O., Osanyinro, O., & Adegbembo, T. F. (2017). Cost and time performance of traditional-, direct labour-and management-procured public projects in Ondo State, Nigeria. Organization, Technology and Management in Construction. Organization, Technology and Management in Construction: an International Journal, 9(1), 1593-1603.
  2. Agyemang, C. B., & Ofei, S. B. (2013). Employee work engagement and organizational commitment: A Comparative study of private and public sector organizations in Ghana. European Journal of Business and Innovation Research, 1(4), 20-33.
  3. Al-Ababneh, M., Al-Sabi, S., Al-Shakhsheer, F., & Masadeh, M. (2017). The influence of employee empowerment on employee job satisfaction in five-star hotels in Jordan. International Business Research, 10(3), 133.
  4. Alazzaz, F., & Whyte, A. (2015). Linking employee empowerment with productivity in off-site construction. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, , 22(1), 21-37.
  5. Albrecht, S., Bakker, A., Gruman, J., Macey, W., & Saks, A. (2015). Employee engagement, human resource management practices and competitive advantage: An integrated approach. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 2(1), 7-35.
  6. Alfes, K., Shantz, A., Truss, C., & Soane, E. (2013). The link between perceived human resource management practices, engagement and employee behaviour: a moderated mediation model. The international journal of human resource management, 24(2), 330.
  7. Allen, J. A., Lehmann-Willenbrock, N., & Sands, S. J. (2016). Meetings as a positive boost? How and when meeting satisfaction impacts employee empowerment. Journal of Business Research, 69(10), 4340-4347.
  8. Analoui, F. (2017). The changing patterns of human resource management. Routledge.
  9. Andrew, O., & Sofian, S. (2012). Individual factors and work outcomes of employee engagement. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 40, 498-508.
  10. Andriotis, N. (2017, February). 4 ways to empower your employees through learning. efront.
  11. Appelbaum, S. H., Karasek, R., Lapointe, F., & Quelch, K. (2015). Employee empowerment: factors affecting the consequent success or failure (Part II). Industrial and commercial training, 47(1), 23-30.
  12. Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. (2014). Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.
  13. Bailey, C., Mankin, D., Kelliher, C., & Garavan, T. (2018). Strategic human resource management. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  14. Bakker, A., Hakanen, J., Demerouti, E., & Xanthopoulou, D. (2007). Job resources boost work engagement, particularly when job demands are high. Journal of Psychology, 99(2), 274-84.
  15. Bedarkar, M., & Pandita, D. (2014). A study on the drivers of employee engagement impacting employee performance. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 133, 106-115.
  16. Berger, J. (2013). Statistical decision theory and Bayesian analysis (2nd ed.). Durham: Springer Science & Business Media.
  17. Boswoth, P. (2016, September). How to Empower Employees in the Workplace – 8 Tips. Leadership Choice.
  18. Brad Shuck, M., Rocco, T., & Albornoz, C. (2011). Exploring employee engagement from the employee perspective: Implications for HRD. Journal of European Industrial Training, 35(4), 300-325.
  19. Bratton, J., & Gold, J. (2017). Human resource management: theory and practice. Palgrave.
  20. Buller, P., & McEvoy, G. (2012). Strategy, human resource management and performance: Sharpening line of sight. Human resource management review, 22(1), 43-56.
  21. Chiang, C., & Hsieh, T. (2012). The impacts of perceived organizational support and psychological empowerment on job performance: The mediating effects of organizational citizenship behavior. International journal of hospitality management, 31(1), 180-190.
  22. Cho, J., Laschinger, H., & Wong, C. (2006). Workplace empowerment, work engagement and organizational commitment of new graduate nurses. Nursing Leadership-Academy Of Canadian Executive Nurses, 19(3), 43.
  23. Cokins, G. (2017). Strategic business management: From planning to performance. John Wiley & Sons.
  24. Cope, D. (2014). Methods and meanings: credibility and trustworthiness of qualitative research. In Oncology nursing forum, 41(1).
  25. Danish, R. Q., Ramzan, S., & Ahmad, F. (2013). Effect of perceived organizational support and work environment on organizational commitment: Mediating role of self-monitoring. Advances in Economics and Business, 1(4), 312-317.
  26. De Lange, A. H., Kooij, D. T., & Van der Heijden, B. I. (2015). Human resource management and sustainability at work across the lifespan: An integrative perspective. Facing the challenges of a multi-age workforce. A use-inspired approach, 50-79.
  27. Doz, Y. L. (2017). Strategic management in multinational companies. In International Business, 229-248.
  28. Doz, Y.L. (2011). Qualitative research for international business. Journal of International Business Studies, 42(5), 582-590.
  29. European LPG Association. (2016). European LPG Sector Overview 2016. Retrieved from https://www.vvg-nederland.nl/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/AEGPL_European-lpg-sector-overview-2016.pdf
  30. Fairfield, T. (2018). Bayesian Reasoning for Qualitative Social Science: A modern approach to case study inference. Retrieved from http://www.lse.ac.uk/resources/calendar/courseGuides/DV/2018_DV560.htm
  31. Farndale, E. N. (2018). Recruitment and selection in context. In Handbook of Research on Comparative Human Resource Management. Edward Elgar Publishing.
  32. Fernandez, S., & Moldogaziev, T. (2015). Employee empowerment and job satisfaction in the US Federal Bureaucracy: A self-determination theory perspective. The American review of public administration, 45(4), 375-401.
  33. Geldenhuys, M., Laba, K., & Venter, C. M. (2014). Meaningful work, work engagement and organisational commitment . SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 40(1), 01-10.
  34. Griffin, M., Parker, S., & Mason, C. (2010). Leader vision and the development ofadaptive and proactive performance: a longitudinal study. Journal of Applied Psychology, 95(1), 174-82.
  35. Han, S. H., Seo, G., Li, J., & Yoon, S. W. (2016). The mediating effect of organizational commitment and employee empowerment: how transformational leadership impacts employee knowledge sharing intention. . Human Resource Development International, 19(2), 98-115.
  36. Hanaysha, J. (2016). Testing the effects of employee engagement, work environment, and organizational learning on organizational commitment. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 229, 289-297.
  37. Heathfield, S. (2018, December 2). Top 10 Principles of Employee Empowerment. the balance careers.
  38. Hirzel, A. K., Leyer, M., & Moormann, J. (2017). The role of employee empowerment in the implementation of continuous improvement: Evidence from a case study of a financial services provider. International Journal of Operations & Production Management,, 37(10), 1563-1579.
  39. Hoon, S. J., Kolb, J., Hee, L. U., & Kyoung, K. H. (2012). Role of transformational leadership in effective organizational knowledge creation practices: Mediating effects of employees' work engagement. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 23(1), 65-101.
  40. Hornstein, H. (2015). The integration of project management and organizational change management is now a necessity. International Journal of Project Management, 33(2), 291-298.
  41. Jiang, K., Lepak, D., Hu, J., & Baer, J. (2012). How does human resource management influence organizational outcomes? A meta-analytic investigation of mediating mechanisms. Academy of management Journal, 55(6), 1264-1294.
  42. Joo, B. K., & Park, S. (2010). Career satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention: The effects of goal orientation, organizational learning culture and developmental feedback. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 31(6), 482-5.
  43. Jose, G., & Mampilly, S. (2014). Psychological empowerment as a predictor of employee engagement: An empirical attestation. Global Business Review, 15(1), 93-104. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/
  44. Kaliannan, M., & Adjovu, S. (2015). Effective employee engagement and organizational success: a case study. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 172, 161-168.
  45. Kerzner, H. (2017). Project management metrics, KPIs, and dashboards: a guide to measuring and monitoring project performance. . John Wiley & Sons.
  46. Khalid, A., & Khalid, S. (2015). Relationship between organizational commitments, employee engagement and career satisfaction a case of university of Gujrat, Pakistan. Journal of South Asian Studies, 1.
  47. Khuong, M. N., & Le Vu, P. (2014). Measuring the effects of drivers organizational commitment through the mediation of job satisfaction: A Study in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. International Journal of Current Research and Academic Review, 2(2), 1-16.
  48. Kumar, J., & Kumar, A. (2017). Employee Empowerment. Global Journal of Management and Business Research: Administration and Management, 17(4), 1-7.
  49. Lazaroiu, G. (2015). Employee motivation and job performance. Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations, 14(97).
  50. LimeadeMarketing. (2018, April 11). The importance of employee empowerment in the workplace. Limeade.
  51. Lockwood, N. R. (2007). Leveraging employee engagement for competitive advantage. Society for Human Resource Management Research Quarterly, 1, 1-12.
  52. Loon Hoe, S., & McShane, S. (2010). Structural and informal knowledge acquisition and dissemination in organizational learning: An exploratory analysis. The Learning Organization, 17(4), 364-386.
  53. Markos, S., & Sridevi, M. (2010). Employee engagement: The key to improving performance. Int. J. Bus Manage, 5, 89-95.
  54. Maxwell, J. (2005, January). Management of Employee Empowerment. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict.
  55. McLaughlin, J. (2005). A Bayesian updating model for intelligence analysis: A case study of Iraq’s nuclear weapons program. Stanford, CA: Center for International Security and Cooperation, Stanford University.
  56. Men, L., & Stacks, D. (2013). The impact of leadership style and employee empowerment on perceived organizational reputation. Journal of Communication Management, 17(2), 171-192.
  57. Michael, A., & Taylor, S. (2014). Armstrong's handbook of human resource management practice. Kogan Page Publishers.
  58. Mone, E., Eisinger, C., Guggenheim, K., Price, B., & Stine, C. (2011). Performance management at the wheel: Driving employee engagement in organizations. Journal of Business and Psychology, 26(2), 205-212.
  59. Oloko, M., & Ogutu, M. (2017). Influence of power distance on employee empowerment and MNC performance: A study of multinational corporations in Kenya.
  60. Ongori, H., & Shunda, J. (2008). Managing Behind the Scenes: Employee Empowerment. The International Journal of Applied Economics and Finance, 2(2), 84-94.
  61. Pieterse, A., Van Knippenberg, D., Schippers, M., & Stam, D. (2010). Transformational and transactional leadership and innovative behavior: The moderating role of psychological empowerment. Journal of organizational behavior, 31(4), 609-623.
  62. Roos, M., Martins, T., Held, L., & Rue, H. (2015). Sensitivity analysis for Bayesian hierarchical models. Bayesian Analysis, 10(2), 321-349.
  63. Rose, K., & Shuck, B. (2013). Reframing employee engagement within the context of meaning and purpose: Implications for HRD. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 15(4), 341-355.
  64. Rose, R. C., Kumar, N., & Pak, O. G. (2011). The effect of organizational learning on organizational commitment, job satisfaction and work performance. Journal of Applied Business Research (JABR), 25(6), 55-66.
  65. Shen, J., Chanda, A., D'netto, B., & Monga, M. (2009). Managing diversity through human resource management: An international perspective and conceptual framework. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20(2), 235-251.
  66. Shuck, B., & Reio, T. Jr. (2014). Employee engagement and well-being: A moderation model and implications for practice. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 21(1), 43-58.
  67. Spence Laschinger, H., Leiter, M., Day, A., & Gilin, D. (2009). Workplace empowerment, incivility, and burnout: Impact on staff nurse recruitment and retention outcomes. Journal of nursing management, 17(3), 302-311.
  68. Stouten, J., Rousseau, D., & De Cremer, D. (2018). Successful organizational change: Integrating the management practice and scholarly literatures. Academy of Management Annals, 12(2), 752-788.
  69. Suri, H. (2011). Purposeful sampling in qualitative research synthesis. Qualitative Research Journal, 11(2), 63-75.
  70. Taneja, S., Sewell, S., & Odom, R. (2015). A culture of employee engagement: A strategic perspective for global managers. Journal of Business Strategy, 36(3), 46-56.
  71. Tariq, S., Jan, F. A., & Ahmad, M. S. (2016). Green employee empowerment: a systematic literature review on state-of-art in green human resource management. Quality & Quantity, 50(1), 237-269.
  72. Teh, P. E. (2009). Does total quality management reduce employees’ role conflict? Industrial Management & Data Systems , 109(8), 1118-1136.
  73. Truong Quang, H., & Hara, Y. (2017). Risks and performance in supply chain: the push effect. International Journal of Production Research, , pp.1-20.
  74. Ugwu, F., Onyishi, I., & Rodríguez-Sánchez, A. (2014). Linking organizational trust with employee engagement: The role of psychological empowerment. Personnel Review, 43(3), 377-400.
  75. Welch, M. (2011). The evolution of the employee engagement concept. Communication implications: An International Journal, 16(4), 328-346.
  76. Williams, C. (2011). Research methods. Journal of Business & Economics Research (JBER), 5(3), 34-56.
  77. Zhang, X., & Bartol, K. (2010). Linking empowering leadership and employee creativity: The influence of psychological empowerment, intrinsic motivation, and creative process engagement. Academy of management journal, 53(1), 107-128. Retrieved from https://journals.aom.org/doi/abs/

Copyright information

This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

About this article

Published online: 14.09.2019
Pages: 3032-3047
Publisher: Future Academy
In: Volume 26, Issue 3
DOI: 10.15405/ejsbs.264
Online ISSN: 2301-2218
Article Type: Original Research
Cite this article