EjSBS - The European Journal of Social & Behavioural Sciences

The European Journal of Social & Behavioural Sciences

Online ISSN: 2301-2218
European Publisher

Student Perceptions of Workplace Corruption and its Effect on Their Academic Motivation

Abstract

Corruption is a worldwide issue, and our understanding of it has been shaped by public policy at the expense of personal motivation. Therefore, a psychological standpoint is required to identify youth at risk of future exploitation. A total of 890 students (psychology, economics, law and education) participated in this study, and their motivation for being at university (AMS-C 28) and their perceptions of the effects of corruption on motivation (PoCM) were measured. Interestingly, students reported that their perception of corruption in the workplace affects their intrinsic motivation and subsequently, the amotivated group reported the highest willingness to use corruption in the future. The study proposes that the self-determination theory in conjunction with PoCM can potentially identify students at risk. We argue that intrinsic motivation, the form closest to the self-determined end of the SDT continuum, can protect students from the adverse effects of corruption.

Keywords: Perceived corruption, amotivation, SDT, AMS, psychology, students at risk, Kosovo

Introduction

Corruption is nuanced, and the ability to understand and accept it varies with the specific form it takes: be it extortion, nepotism, bribes, etc. It can be further complicated by the cultural realities of the location in which it occurs. In addition, while some attention has been paid to corruption from a psychological perspective, it is more frequently treated as a public structural problem and considered to have profoundly negative effects on the economies and development of nations and nation-states alike (and, by default, the members of said groups) (Agbo & Iwundu, 2016; Guerrero & Rodrıguez-Oreggia, 2008; Harrison, 2007; Shleifer & Vishny, 1993). Therefore, corruption is logically identified as a problem that can and should be overcome through development policy, in the area perceived to be at greatest risk. Hence, the cost of corruption is often translated into a monetary value; for example, an EU report (Special Eurobarometer 397; European Commission/TNS Opinion & Social, 2014) states that corruption has an annual cost of approximately 120 billion euros within the European Union alone.

A financial burden is one that reduces the opportunity for investment, counters the operational fitness of the free market and decreases available public finance. It is a number that is detached from meaningful comprehension and works counter to the identifiable victim effect through a distorted focus on the macro and a neglect of the micro. This perspective is compounded when a development-centric understanding of corruption engages with the social aspect of corruption’s negative effects, which includes environmental degradation, the corrosion of public trust in governing institutions (Transparency International, 2016) and the enabling of organized crime to utilize corruption as a means of supporting activities such as human and drug trafficking (European Commission/TNS Opinion & Social, 2014). These imposing numbers and activities give weight to and establish the reputation of the development/public view of corruption over that of the private/personal. What the development view neglects is that those facing corruption are not large public bodies; rather, they are individual people with their own stories and internal realities.

Problem Statement

While the predominant literature on corruption takes the development point of view and thus focuses on the beneficiary of the transaction, there is a presumption of a willingness to participate: a joint criminal exercise (Harrison, 2007). This situation is one in which both parties hold equal responsibility, and while this may be true in a legal sense, it neglects the power dynamic, the invasive aspect of corruption, and thereby the psychological consequences of corruption that occur over its life cycle. A person’s motivation, is particular is one of the most important aspects which can be influenced by perceptions and attitudes of corruption which subsequently may affect an individual’s future behaviour. Therefore, studies which consider the psychological aspects are needed in the literature about corruption; more so, sampling underdeveloped counties such as Kosovo this study provides a unique perspective, given that, Kosovo, ranked at 95/175 in the Corruption Perception Index, is much higher than other Balkan countries (Transparency International, 2016).

Defining corruption

Corruption is commonly defined as the abuse of entrusted power for private gain (Andvig, Fjeldstad, Amundsen, Sissener, & Soreide, 2001; Harrison, 2007; Shleifer & Vishny, 1993). Transparency International (2017) further expands the definition into three categories depending on the sector in which it occurs and the number of financial resources involved:

–Grand corruption occurs at the highest level of government and has a direct effect on policy decisions for the benefit of party leaders.

–Petty corruption involves the actions of mid and low-level public servants that can block or allow access to everyday services (e.g., schools and hospitals) for personal gain.

–Political corruption is the politically empowered decision makers’ ability to manipulate government through financing, policy and procedure decisions to maintain their position.

Although it broadens the definition, an important but absent component is that corruption is a secret and limited act. It may seem self-explanatory, but corruption is an illegal activity: while providing rewards for participants, it also carries significant risk if the activities are unmasked. Shleifer and Vishny (1993) note that secrecy is critical to containing an activity to a select number of individuals to maintain their status/rewards; thus, corruption requires constant vigilance to preserve the limited access to and rewards for both activities and participants.

Secrets have the potential to harm mental health and are both cognitively taxing and stressful (Lane & Wegner, 1995; Pennebaker, 1990). Additionally, keeping secrets manifests as physiological effects and decreased visual perception, increasing the effort needed to complete tasks and reducing the likelihood of assisting others in need (Slepian, Masicampo, Toosi, & Ambady, 2012). Furthermore, the power dynamic represented in a corruption relationship creates a secret that is enforced though punishment, where the holder of the secret is silenced through fear. This creates a vicious cycle of a fear-induced silence and secrets and is one of the defining attributes of an abusive relationship, and is acknowledged as a key component in maintaining or breaking the cycle.

The concept of ‘Where there is violence, there is a victim’ is one that is often lacking in the discussion of corruption and its societal effects. It is particularly lacking within the common definition of corruption that is biased from the view of development. The development view of corruption establishes a clear distinction between two spheres of action; a dichotomous separation of the public/organizational and the private/personal, with emphasis placed on the public sphere of corruption while neglecting the personal (Harrison, 2007).

While corruption has direct negative effects on society at large, the act always occurs at the level of the individual; one who takes and one who gives. By ignoring the personal stories of individuals, the common definition works against the identifiable victim effect in the broader social construct, thereby reinforcing and empowering public perceptions of corruption and its secrecy rather than confronting the direct causes. The victim effect presumes that when the public is focused on an individual’s story, there is a high likelihood of willingness to act, as opposed to when the same individual’s story is amalgamated into a broad narrative (Small, 2015). For example, the personal story of an individual who has been threatened with lack of access to a common service unless they pay a bribe will resonate more deeply with the general public than 120 billion euros in lost revenue, as individuals would scarcely be able to comprehend such vast amounts of money on a personal level.

Revealing the individual stories of those who have directly suffered the consequences of corruption can not only change public perceptions, but also has the direct effect of allowing individuals to stop being victims, take ownership of their narrative and begin the journey to empowerment (Wijma et al., 2007). Powerlessness, another neglected aspect of corruption (Mirowsky & Ross, 1986), has been linked to negative mental health outcomes and has also been found to impair executive mental function such as goal-oriented behaviour (Smith, Jostmann, Galinsky, & van Dijk, 2008). By recognizing that corruption is a form of interpersonal abuse, steps can be taken to identify potential victims and provide them with means of defence.

Self-determination theory

Deci and Ryan’s (1985; 2000) self-determination theory (SDT) states that the gratification of motivation influences personal behaviours; without gratification, individuals will potentially cease an activity when faced with an obstacle. Motivation is critical to the continuation of any endeavour, yet as SDT reports, motivation is a continuum. This continuum can be separated into three dominant positions comprised of further subdivisions; the subdivisions range from “self-determined” to varying degrees of lessening autonomy and then to “controlled,” a state in which there is little to no autonomy perceived. At each stage of the continuum, the type of motivation has the potential to influence the outcome of a task in specific ways (see Figure 1).

Figure 1: Self-Determination Theory Continuum
Self-Determination Theory Continuum
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The three main positions and subdivisions are as follows:

internal factors are those driving behaviours; actions are influenced directly from the results of the activity undertaken and are generally specific task-orientated (Deci & Ryan, 2002; Vallerand et al., 1992, 1993).

external factors are those driving behaviours; actions are influenced by results that differentiate from the activity undertaken and are commonly end result-oriented (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000, 2002).

the absence of either intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, a feeling of a lack of control/purpose and incompetence. An individual does not comprehend the interplay of their behaviour and the results attained (Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, & Ryan, 1991; Ratelle, Guay, Vallerand, Larose, & Senécal, 2007; Ryan & Deci, 2002; Vallerand & Blssonnette, 1992).

The categories of motivation with which students identify when engaged with their studies allow for the classification of students on a scale of potential risk regarding the influence of corruption. It is expected that those students who identify as amotivated will be most at risk, with the degrees of risk decreasing as students move towards the self-determined position on the continuum (see Figure 2).

Figure 2: SDT and Risk to Corruption Scale
SDT and Risk to Corruption Scale
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Research Questions

The research questions for this study attempt to determine:

The key variables governing this study are the independent variable of perceptions of corruption and the dependent variable of motivation which are used to measure the effects of perceptions of corruption on motivation. A secondary analysis uses the independent variables of location, year of study, gender and field to refine the results.

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to utilise the self-determining theory (SDT) to focus on the personal cost of corruption from a psychological perspective; that of university students’ motivation for their studies. To achieve this stated purpose, this study analysed a sample of students from the University of Prishtina in Kosovo to determine how perceptions of corruption affect their motivation to study and whether that combination would contribute to their reporting of potential engagement in corruption in its different forms. By measuring motivation, it is possible to create a repeatable and accurate method for identifying those university students at risk for future participation in corrupt practices.

Research Design

Participants

A non-probabilistic sample by convenience was used in this study, with 890 students taking part and selected from the departments of Economics, Law, Psychology and Education. The rationale used for the selection of the participating departments was to select the areas of studies that are the top most required fields for enrolment of students in Kosovo (Kadriu, 2017). 668 of the participants were female (75%) and 222 were male (25%). The sample covered an age range of 18-32, with an average age of 21 (M = 20.78, SD = 1.83). The sample consisted of students from Economics (56% female), Law (68% female), Psychology (85% female) and Education (92% female), and covered the 2nd, 3rd and 4th years of study. The bachelor program lasts 3 years for Psychology and Economics and 4 years for Education and Law. Regarding the students’ location; 62% of the students reported coming from urban areas, while 38% came from rural areas. Additionally, 92% of the overall sample reported being unemployed; of the 8% that reported being employed while studying, 89% were males.

Instruments

AMS-C 28: Students’ motivation was measured using an adapted Academic Motivation Scale, the AMS-C 28 (College Version; Vallerand et al., 1992). The AMS is one of the most consistently used instruments to measure motivation and is aligned with Deci and Ryan’s (1985, 2000) self-determination theory. Originally created by Vallerand, Blais, Brière, and Pelletier (1989) and with a complete English adaptation (Vallerand et al., 1992, 1993), the instrument is specifically designed to measure the seven aspects of the SDT. It consists of the three components of intrinsic motivation; to know, towards accomplishment and to experience stimulation, as well as the three components of extrinsic motivation; external regulation, introjected regulation and identified regulation, with the last aspect measuring amotivation. The AMS uses a seven-point scale ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree.

Perceptions of Corruption on Motivation PoCM

The effects of corruption on a student’s motivation is an author-designed instrument to measure the range of understanding of different aspects of corruption and how it relates to both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The PoCM was developed through referencing Kosovo laws (Law no .2004/34; Law no. 04/L-051; Law no. 04/L-050), as well as Kosovo specific literature on corruption (Anti-Corruption Agency, 2017; Kosova Democratic Institute, 2016; Riinvest Institute, 2016) to identify the most common key legal components associated with the construct of ‘corruption’ in Kosovo, nepotism and bribery. The ‘meaning’ construct uses precise examples taken from the same Kosovo laws and literature to gauge the participants’ understanding of the corruption construct. The ‘advancement’ construct is defined by items that measure if the participants are willing to engage in corrupt practices; done by using direct questions. The constructs of ‘extrinsic’ and ‘intrinsic’ measure the effect of corruption on motivation using the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000). Given that motivation effects behaviour (Pintrich & Schunk, 1996), the ‘change’ construct uses the same method of direct questioning to measure the likelihood of participants changing fields of study.

The instrument uses a seven-point scale ranging from 1 = strongly disagree to 7 = strongly agree. The categories are as follows:

Using nepotism for personal gain, with 5 items; e.g., “It is appropriate to get a job based on personal connections if you are the least qualified person”

Using money or favours for personal gain, 4 items; e.g., ‘It is appropriate to get a job if you have to pay for it”

Using corruption for career advancement, 4 items; e.g., “Corruption is a legitimate means of career advancement.”

Changing one’s studies or field because of corruption, 2 items; e.g., “I thought of changing my area of study because of the corruption in my field.”

Effect of perceived corruption on extrinsic motivation, 5 items; e.g., “Corruption means that my knowledge is of no value in getting a job.”

Effect of perceived corruption in intrinsic motivation, 5 items; e.g.,

Students’ understanding of corruption; e.g., “can the following activity be described as corruption: Misuse of state assets.”

“Is corruption a serious issue in KS?”; “Will you use corruption to get a job?”; “Does corruption affect your chances of getting a job after your BA”; “Does corruption make you feel that cheating in your studies is acceptable?”

Reliability

The overall Cronbach’s alpha of the AMS-C 28 questionnaire was α = .88. The questionnaire comprised 28 items grouped into three categories: three forms of intrinsic motivation, three forms of extrinsic motivation and an amotivation subscale. Cronbach’s alpha is presented below for each category and subcategory:

Intrinsic motivation (12 items, α =.88): a) to know (4 items, α = .73), b); towards accomplishment (4 items, α = 0.70), and c); to experience stimulation (4 items, α = .75).

Extrinsic motivation (12 items, α =.85): a) identified (4 items, α = .70); b) introjected (4 items, α = .74, and c); external regulation (4 items, α =.66). Amotivation: (4 items, α =.70).

The overall Cronbach’s alpha of the questionnaire was α = .88. The questionnaire comprised 34 items grouped into 7 categories: nepotism (5 items, α = .74); bribes (4 items, α = .69); advancement (4 items, α = .68); change (2 items, α = .68); extrinsic (5 items, α = .78); intrinsic (5 items, α = .75); and meaning (5 items, α = .70).

Piloting

Translation and back-translation of the questionnaire from English to Albanian was conducted and supervised by two psychologists. Additionally, the instrument was piloted with 44 students in the 2nd year of their bachelor studies in the Department of Social Work (University of Prishtina), with an average age of 19 (M = 19.3, SD = .78) and comprising 85% females and 15% males. The piloting sample resulted in an overall Cronbach’s alpha of α = .88 for the AMS-C 28 questionnaire and α = .87 for the PoCM questionnaire. Each instrument was translated from English to Albanian and then back into English. Two independent translators who were themselves supervised by two psychologists conducted the translations. Piloting of the instruments was completed as recommended by cross-cultural research methodologists (Van de vijver & Leung, 1997).

Procedure

The selected students were approached either before or at the end of their lecture for consent to participate; furthermore, permission was granted by the students’ professors with an official sign-off on a permission form. Anonymity was guaranteed and the same instructions were provided in all classes. All students were informed of the aim of the study, that participation was voluntary, and a question-and-answer period was provided for student clarification. The informal sessions were always concluded by reminding the students that they were free to withdraw at any time as well as to choose not to answer any item with which they felt uncomfortable.

Findings

AMS-C 28 Results

Prior to the analysis, an exploratory data analysis was conducted to determine if students’ scores measured with AMS-C 28 and PoCM were normally distributed. The results for the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality (Field, 2009) indicated that data score distributions did significantly deviate from normal distribution (<.001). For further analysis of the variables of interest, non-parametric tests were used to evaluate whether the median values on a test variable significantly differed between groups.

When measured with the AMS-C 28 questionnaire, male and female students significantly differed in terms of their motivation to attend university. Females were significantly higher than males in intrinsic motivation, particularly in the categories of “to know” and “toward accomplishment.” However, the third category of intrinsic motivation, “to experience stimulation,” did not show significant differences in gender. Additionally, females showed higher results in extrinsic motivation in all three categories: identified, introjected and external regulation. In contrast, males reported the highest scores in the amotivation category of the AMS-C 28 questionnaire; a category that represents not wanting to be or knowing why you are in university (Table 1).

Table 1 - Gender Differences in Students’ Motivation for Being in University
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Psychology students reported the highest results in terms of identifying with the intrinsic motivation categories “to know” and “to experience stimulation.” Education students showed higher results in the extrinsic motivation categories of “introjected” and “identified.” In regards to amotivation, the highest overall number of students that identified with this form of motivation came from Economics, followed by Law (Table 2). It is hypothesized that amotivation can be a predictor of risk for high levels of corruption within fields commonly associated with corruption, so these results should potentially raise some red flags.

Table 2 - Difference between Students’ Field of Study and Motivation
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When checking for differences between a student’s year of study and their motivation, the results showed that year of study (i.e., 2nd, 3rd or 4th year of studies) had no impact on student motivation.

No significant difference was found between a student’s motivation to be at university and their location of origin (urban or rural), except in the category of intrinsic motivation. Specifically, within the category of “towards accomplishment” the rural group reported higher scores: ( (769) = -2.796,<.05), urban ( = 380.82) and rural ( = 427.73), with an effect size of = .10.

PoCM Results

Overview of data

While there were no differences between male and female students in their understanding of what corruption is, there were significant differences between perceptions of corruption as well as its effects and usage. More male students reported that they deem it appropriate to use nepotism to find a job, to use different forms of bribery (favours or money) to get a job and to use corruption to advance in their career. Additionally, male students reported at a greater rate how perceived corruption in the workplace affects their motivation to study (e.g., ‘corruption makes me feel that university is worthless’). They also reported that they have thought of quitting or changing their studies because of perceived corruption in the workplace (see Table 3). These results would indicate that males are at greatest risk of the effects of both participating in corruption and being negatively influenced with regard to their studies. Furthermore, a potential indicator of the abuse aspect of corruption is observed when those most affected develop an increased likelihood of perpetrating said activity at a later date.

Table 3 - Gender Differences and PoCM
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Furthermore, male students reported that they find it more acceptable to cheat at university,= -5.676,<.001, =.20, Table 4.

Table 4 - Gender Differences and Attitudes toward Cheating in University
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Notes: *<.05, **<.01, ***<.001

Participants studying Economics showed the highest tolerance to using nepotism and corruption to advance their careers. Economics students also reported that their perceptions of corruption in their field and workplace affected their intrinsic and extrinsic motivation to be dedicated to their studies. In addition, it was interesting to find that Education students were second to Economics students in believing it was appropriate to use nepotism and/or corruption to advance their careers. However, Economics students reported in the greatest numbers that they thought of changing or quitting their studies because of corruption in their field. These results indicate that the fields of Economics and Law are at the highest risk of producing graduates who are susceptible to the influences of corruption. Upon reflection, these are the fields traditionally associated with corruption; hence, an extra degree of risk should be taken into consideration (Table 5).

Table 5 - Field of Study and PoCM
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Students in the final year of their studies reported their intrinsic motivation to be affected by their perception of corruption in the workplace. Furthermore, 4th year students reported that they would use corruption to get a job significantly more than students in year 2 and 3; 2(2) = 6.945<.05,= 0.07. The gender breakdown showed males more willing to do so than females, at= -4.167,<.001, = 0.14 (Table 6). These results add to the evolving narrative of corruption influencing those who are at risk; with male students once again showing a willingness as well as an increased likelihood to use corruption as their studies draw to a close.

Table 6 - Reported Willingness to use Corruption and Gender Differences
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While the amotivated participants identified in the study were predominantly male; in the field of Education, more females were identified (Table 7). Amotivated participants presented the highest effect sizes for the different categories of the PoCM. Specifically, male Economics students reported high effect sizes for the following: Intrinsic - that their intrinsic motivation was affected by perceived corruption (72) =-2.681,<.01, = .31; Changing - changing their field of study (81) = -2.951,<.01, = .32; Advancing - deeming it appropriate to use corruption as a form of advancing in their field(79) = -2.431,<.05, = .26; and Bribe - deeming it appropriate to use bribes to get a job(73) = -2.684,<.05, = .31. Amotivated male Law students showed the following results: using bribes (68) =-3.053,<.05, = .36, and deeming it appropriate to use corruption as a form of advancing in their field(73) =-3.098,<.05, = 35. Results for amotivated female Education students were intrinsic motivation affected by perceived corruption (192) =-3.468,<001, = .24 and change field of study because of corruption (209) =-4.470,<001, =.30.

Table 7 - Amotivated Students Presented in Percentage Distributed by Field of Study
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Correlations

Students’ willingness to use corruption to get a job was positively and moderately correlated with nepotism: seeing nepotism as an appropriate way to get a job, (742) =.451,<.01; Bribe - using bribery to get a job, (763) = .431, p=.01, and Advance - using corruption to advance in one’s career, (753) =.478,<.01.

Perceiving cheating in university to be acceptable was positively and moderately correlated with students reporting that they would use nepotism ( = (740) = .430,<.001) and bribery ( = (760) = .471,<.001) and would advance their career using corruption ( = (731) = .440,<.001). There was a significant, positive and moderate correlation between students reporting it was acceptable to cheat at university and being willing to use corruption to find a job, (821) = .433,<.001.

Regression

To understand the predictability of students’ motivation measured with AMS-C 28 as well as their perception of corruption (PoCM) and their willingness to use corruption to get job, a binominal logistic regression analysis was conducted. For this purpose, scores for “willingness to use corruption” were recorded by dividing the sample into two groups, those who reported that they would and those who reported that they would not use corruption to get a job. These were coded 0 (scale 1 to 3) and 1 (scale 4 to 7). The first model using AMS-C 28 was significant and explained 7% of the variance: Nagelkerke R2= .071, χ2 (7) = 23.521,<.001, in which the students who reported being amotivated (OR =1.083,<.01) were likely to show a willingness to use corruption at a degree 1 time greater than those with a different form of motivation. That said, for students who reported being intrinsically motivated, as in the category “to know” (OR =.907,<.01), the result was a protective variable by negatively predicting the willingness to use corruption to find a job (Table 8). The rest of the AMS-C 28 scales did not produce significant results.

Table 8 - AMS-C 28 Motivation Categories and Students’ Willingness to use Corruption to Find a Job
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The second model that used PoCM as a predictor of willingness to use corruption to get a job was significant and explained 42% of variance: Nagelkerke R2= .420, χ2 (8) = 120.324,<.001, in which the students who reported it to be acceptable to use nepotism (OR =1.115,<.01) and to use corruption as a form of advancement in their field (OR =1.1169,<.001) as well as those who were more tolerant of cheating in their studies (OR =1.302,<.001) were more likely to use corruption in their field - up to 1 time more than those who presented different or opposite attitudes (Table 9). This result offers support for the proposed corruption scale that hypothesizes that amotivation could expose those most at risk, whereas the intrinsic “to know” could offer protection.

Table 9 - Students’ Perception of Corruption (PoCM) as a Predictor of Willingness to use Corruption to Find a Job
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Conclusions and Implications

The results attained through this research support the hypothesis that amotivation is a potential predictor of at-risk students at the University of Prishtina. They also support the possibility that intrinsic motivation, specifically motivation that is closest to the self-determined end of the SDT continuum, can protect students from the adverse effects of corruption. The results show that while, generally, amotivated students are at high risk, those specifically at greatest risk are amotivated, male, 4th-year Economics students. This result should be a source of concern, considering the degree to which corruption is traditionally prevalent among the professionals working within this field. Psychology students presented the highest levels of self-determined motivation and the least likelihood to engage in or be affected by corrupt activities. The Psychology students also presented an interesting counterpoint to that of the Economics students in two areas of potential influence. First, the field of psychology is not generally associated with corruption, so students may have some level of detachment from the construct; secondly, regarding the likelihood for abuse within the corruption life cycle, psychology students might develop skills through the course of their studies that counter certain aspects of the influence and abuses of corruption.

Where females outnumbered males in amotivation, as in the field of Education, they were affected in their desire to continue their studies and were also inclined to consider changing fields. It should be noted here that despite being affected by corruption, the amotivated female Education students did not report any tendency to engage in aspects of corruption itself (as opposed to their amotivated male counterparts in Economics and Law).

This outcome of amotivated male students identifying as both potential victims and perpetrators of corrupt practices and females identifying as victims somewhat mirrors gender roles and aspects of societal violence. Therefore, further psychological engagement in this area is recommended. Specifically, a 3-phase study with phase-1 using SDT to identify amotivated students, phase-2 using PoCM to identify those most at risk, and phase-3 being an intervention that incorporates techniques used in abuse prevention as a prescriptive solution to the problem of corruption at the personal level is highly recommended.

The implications of this study shows that a predominate focus on the economic cost of corruption both locally and international is prescriptive and fails to address the cost that students on the verge of entering the workforce pay at a motivational level. More so, while corruption is a worldwide phenomenon, post-conflict societies such as Kosovo consistently report high levels of corruption irrespective of the resources both financial and material that been allocated to overcoming it. Rather that dealing with corruption after it has taken hold, we advocate a process of identifying university students who are at risk, thereby addressing potential victims of corruption whom, through this study, may also be identified as potential perpetrators before they succumb to its destructive influence. University students are a crucial target in any research on corruption and its effects as this group are the potential leaders, administrators, teachers, and other professionals who can contribute to the betterment or destruction of a nation. Hence, for the well-being of the society and nation, their integrity and ethical value system must be impervious to the insidious effects of corruption.

Acknowledgements

The author(s) declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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About this article

Published online: 30.08.2017
Pages: 242-260
Publisher: Future Academy
In: Volume 20, Issue 3
DOI: 10.15405/ejsbs.220
Online ISSN: 2301-2218
Article Type: Original Research
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